Introduction

At Rotko Networks, our commitment to powering the development and deployment of decentralized applications within the Web3 ecosystem is unwavering. In achieving this, we are dedicated to providing an infrastructure that encapsulates robust hardware, optimized to deliver top-tier performance while ensuring minimal memory latency.

Our approach to building this infrastructure transcends the conventional focus on computational capabilities. We place a similar, if not greater, emphasis on storage solutions, integrating high-speed data access systems that boast minimal latency. Furthermore, we integrate technology that guarantees data integrity, adding another layer of trust to our operations.

Our server's network robustness is another aspect we can't overemphasize. It's equipped with cutting-edge features that ensure seamless, swift, and efficient data transfer. This is a key facet of our system, as it contributes significantly to a smooth, unbroken service for end users.

Recognizing the heavy-duty nature of blockchain operations, we've carefully selected components for our server that not only meet the demand for resource-intensive applications but also have the capacity to exceed these requirements.

In the following sections, we'll delve into the specifics of the hardware that forms the backbone of our infrastructure, discussing their features, capabilities, and the reasons they've been chosen for our server operations.

Join us as we take a detailed look at our server infrastructure, designed and engineered to promote growth and foster innovation in the Web3 ecosystem. Prepare for an insightful journey into the hardware specifics that power Rotko Networks. Stay tuned!

Hardware

Machines at rack

Our primary goal is to deliver a high-performance and secure blockchain infrastructure that fosters trust and reliability. We aim to achieve this by focusing on the critical elements of blockchain technology - namely, ensuring high single-thread performance for validator services, and low latency for RPC services, among others.

Validator services in blockchain infrastructures demand high single-thread performance due to the nature of their operations. Validators, in essence, validate transactions and blocks within the blockchain. They act as the arbitrators of the system, ensuring the veracity and accuracy of the information being added to the blockchain. This is an intensive process that involves complex computations and encryption, thus requiring a high-performance, single-thread system to maintain efficiency.

The low latency required for our RPC services is another vital factor in our hardware design. RPC, or Remote Procedure Call, is a protocol that allows a computer program to execute a procedure in another address space, usually on another network, without the programmer needing to explicitly code for this functionality. In simpler terms, it's a way for systems to talk to each other. Low latency in these operations is crucial to ensure a smooth and seamless dialogue between various systems within the blockchain. A delay or a lag in these communications can cause bottlenecks, leading to a slowdown in overall operations.

The hardware components and their configurations we have selected are specifically designed to address these needs. By leveraging advanced technologies like the AMD Ryzen 9 7950X for its superior single-thread performance, DDR5 memory for fast data retrieval, and NVMe SSDs for their exceptional speed in data storage and retrieval, we aim to provide an infrastructure that can effectively handle the demands of blockchain technology.

Our infrastructure is also designed to ensure scalability and flexibility. As the demands of the blockchain ecosystem grow, so too should our capacity to handle these increasing demands. Hence, our hardware design also incorporates elements that will allow us to easily scale up our operations when necessary.

In essence, our hardware is purpose-built to deliver high-performance blockchain operations that are secure, reliable, and capable of scaling with the demands of the evolving blockchain ecosystem.

Rack

Rack from front

At the heart of our operations is a meticulously designed server infrastructure, securely housed within ten units of a top-tier 42U rack. Providing approximately 230 liters of computational capacity, our setup is powered by a robust dual 2kW, 220V power system that underlines our commitment to delivering superior performance and steadfast availability.

Our server infrastructure is hosted within a carrier-neutral facility, strategically enabling seamless and robust connections with a broad range of service providers, ISPs, and cloud platforms. This network versatility fosters enhanced performance and unyielding reliability, thus ensuring a consistently superior user experience.

More than a mere assembly of servers, our setup is a comprehensively designed ecosystem meticulously architected to achieve maximum efficiency. Leveraging location flexibility, our infrastructure can be configured across multiple strategic points to guarantee optimal network connectivity and minimized latency.

Direct peering arrangements with major local and international internet exchanges ensure broad bandwidth and unwavering connectivity. Coupled with floor and inter-floor cross-connect cabling, we have fostered a well-connected network capable of facilitating smooth data transfer between servers and racks.

Our infrastructure is further enhanced with a suite of cutting-edge networking devices, including industry-leading routers and switches. Services such as KVM over IP for remote server management, alongside on-site technical support and smart hands as a service, amplify our operational efficiency.

To guarantee optimal performance and longevity of our hardware, a tightly regulated environment is maintained. Our facility features controlled air temperature and humidity, ensuring the hardware operates within optimal conditions. Additionally, we have installed a UPS and backup power generators to mitigate the risk of power interruptions.

Security is paramount. Our facility, with ISO 27001 certification, employs a rigorous system of access control with logging and video surveillance, ensuring a safe and secure environment for our infrastructure. Additional safety measures such as fire alarms and smoke protection systems are in place to protect our hardware. A dedicated network operations center, operational 24/7, stands ready to promptly address any technical concerns.

Our setup also incorporates a raised floor design, an element that demonstrates our meticulous attention to detail. This design improves air distribution and cable management, leading to thermal efficiency and a well-organized operational environment.

BKK01 - Validator

BKK01

CPU

AMD RYZEN 5 5600G 6-Core 3.7 GHz (4.6 GHz Max Boost) Socket AM4 65W

The heart of our operations, the 6-core AMD RYZEN 5 5600G, offers excellent performance for blockchain applications. It provides robust and reliable service even under demanding workloads.

CPU Cooler

COOLSERVER P32 CPU Cooler

For managing the thermal performance of our CPU, we use the COOLSERVER P32 CPU Cooler. It's equipped with high-quality heatpipes and can handle the Ryzen 5 5600G even under intensive workloads.

RAM

2x32GB Hynix DDR4 3200MHz

Our setup uses 2 modules of 32GB DDR4 RAM from Hynix, providing us with ample bandwidth and ensuring smooth server operations.

Motherboard

MSI A550M-ITX/ac

The MSI A550M-ITX/ac motherboard is an engineering marvel that brings together the performance of the consumer world with the dependability of server-grade hardware. This motherboard supports the AMD Ryzen series CPUs and DDR4 memory, promising speed, reliability, and scalability.

Storage

4x 2TB NVME Monster Storage 3D TLC SSD - R:7400Mb/s W:6,600MB/s

For storage, we use 4 Monster Storage 3D TLC NVMe SSDs, each of 2TB capacity. These high-speed SSDs are known for their exceptional performance and efficiency in data storage and retrieval.

Power unit

400W PSU

This second-hand case comes with an integrated 400W Power Supply Unit. The PSU is essential for providing power to your internal components. It converts the power from the wall outlet into a usable form for your computer's components. Despite being second-hand, the PSU is in good condition and will provide a reliable power source for your system.

Chassis

Mini-ITX 1U chassis

This second-hand case comes with an integrated 400W Power Supply Unit. The PSU is essential for providing power to your internal components. It converts the power from the wall outlet into a usable form for your computer's components. Despite being second-hand, the PSU is in good condition and will provide a reliable power source for your system.

KVM

BliKVM v1 CM4 "KVM over IP" Raspberry Pi CM4 HDMI CSI PiKVM v3

A modern, highly secure, and programmable KVM solution running on Arch Linux, which provides exceptional control over your server, akin to physical access. With an easy build process, it boasts minimal video latency (about 100 ms) and a lightweight Web UI accessible from any browser. It emulates mass storage drives and allows ATX power management, secure data transmission with SSL, and local Raspberry Pi health monitoring. You can also manage GPIO and USB relays via its web interface. The PiKVM OS is production-ready, supports a read-only filesystem to prevent memory card damage, offers extensible authorization methods, and enables automation with macros.

Features of PiKVM:

  • Fully-featured and modern IP-KVM: PiKVM is up-to-date with the latest KVM technologies.
  • Easy to build: PiKVM offers ready-to-use OS images and a friendly build environment.
  • Low video latency: With approximately 100 milliseconds of video latency, it provides one of the smallest delays of all existing solutions.
  • Lightweight Web UI and VNC: The user interface is accessible through any browser, with no proprietary clients required. VNC is also supported.
  • Mass Storage Drive Emulation: On Raspberry Pi 4 and ZeroW, PiKVM can emulate a virtual CD-ROM or Flash Drive. A live image can be uploaded to boot the attached server.
  • ATX power management: PiKVM supports simple circuits for controlling the power button of the attached server.
  • Security: PiKVM is designed with strong security, using SSL to protect traffic.
  • Local monitoring: PiKVM monitors the health of the Raspberry Pi board and provides warnings for potential issues.
  • GPIO management: Control GPIO and USB relays via the web interface.
  • Production-ready: PiKVM OS is based on Arch Linux ARM and can be customized for any needs.
  • Read-only filesystem: The OS runs in read-only mode to prevent damage to the memory card due to a sudden power outage.
  • Extensible authorization methods: PiKVM supports integration into existing authentication infrastructure.
  • Macro scripts: Repetitive actions can be automated with keyboard & mouse action macros.
  • Open & free: PiKVM is open-source software, released under the GPLv3.

BKK02 - Validator 2

BKK01

CPU

AMD RYZEN 5 5600G 6-Core 3.7 GHz (4.6 GHz Max Boost) Socket AM4 65W

The heart of our operations, the 6-core AMD RYZEN 5 5600G, offers excellent performance for blockchain applications. It provides robust and reliable service even under demanding workloads.

CPU Cooler

COOLSERVER P32 CPU Cooler

For managing the thermal performance of our CPU, we use the COOLSERVER P32 CPU Cooler. It's equipped with high-quality heatpipes and can handle the Ryzen 5 5600G even under intensive workloads.

RAM

2x32GB Hynix DDR4 3200MHz

Our setup uses 2 modules of 32GB DDR4 RAM from Hynix, providing us with ample bandwidth and ensuring smooth server operations.

Motherboard

MSI A520M-ITX/ac

The MSI A520M-ITX/ac motherboard is an engineering marvel that brings together the performance of the consumer world with the dependability of server-grade hardware. This motherboard supports the AMD Ryzen series CPUs and DDR4 memory, promising speed, reliability, and scalability.

Storage

4x 2TB NVME Monster Storage 3D TLC SSD - R:7400Mb/s W:6,600MB/s

For storage, we use 4 Monster Storage 3D TLC NVMe SSDs, each of 2TB capacity. These high-speed SSDs are known for their exceptional performance and efficiency in data storage and retrieval. Downside is that lacks DRAM for caching.

Power unit

400W PSU

This second-hand case comes with an integrated 400W Power Supply Unit. The PSU is essential for providing power to your internal components. It converts the power from the wall outlet into a usable form for your computer's components. Despite being second-hand, the PSU is in good condition and will provide a reliable power source for your system.

Chassis

Mini-ITX 1U chassis

This second-hand case comes with an integrated 400W Power Supply Unit. The PSU is essential for providing power to your internal components. It converts the power from the wall outlet into a usable form for your computer's components. Despite being second-hand, the PSU is in good condition and will provide a reliable power source for your system.

KVM

BliKVM v1 CM4 "KVM over IP" Raspberry Pi CM4 HDMI CSI PiKVM v3

A modern, highly secure, and programmable KVM solution running on Arch Linux, which provides exceptional control over your server, akin to physical access. With an easy build process, it boasts minimal video latency (about 100 ms) and a lightweight Web UI accessible from any browser. It emulates mass storage drives and allows ATX power management, secure data transmission with SSL, and local Raspberry Pi health monitoring. You can also manage GPIO and USB relays via its web interface. The PiKVM OS is production-ready, supports a read-only filesystem to prevent memory card damage, offers extensible authorization methods, and enables automation with macros.

Features of PiKVM:

  • Fully-featured and modern IP-KVM: PiKVM is up-to-date with the latest KVM technologies.
  • Easy to build: PiKVM offers ready-to-use OS images and a friendly build environment.
  • Low video latency: With approximately 100 milliseconds of video latency, it provides one of the smallest delays of all existing solutions.
  • Lightweight Web UI and VNC: The user interface is accessible through any browser, with no proprietary clients required. VNC is also supported.
  • Mass Storage Drive Emulation: On Raspberry Pi 4 and ZeroW, PiKVM can emulate a virtual CD-ROM or Flash Drive. A live image can be uploaded to boot the attached server.
  • ATX power management: PiKVM supports simple circuits for controlling the power button of the attached server.
  • Security: PiKVM is designed with strong security, using SSL to protect traffic.
  • Local monitoring: PiKVM monitors the health of the Raspberry Pi board and provides warnings for potential issues.
  • GPIO management: Control GPIO and USB relays via the web interface.
  • Production-ready: PiKVM OS is based on Arch Linux ARM and can be customized for any needs.
  • Read-only filesystem: The OS runs in read-only mode to prevent damage to the memory card due to a sudden power outage.
  • Extensible authorization methods: PiKVM supports integration into existing authentication infrastructure.
  • Macro scripts: Repetitive actions can be automated with keyboard & mouse action macros.
  • Open & free: PiKVM is open-source software, released under the GPLv3.

BKK03 - Bootnode/RPC

BKK03

CPU: AMD Ryzen™ 9 7950X3D 16-Core 32-Thread 5NM

The AMD Ryzen 9 7950X3D, with its 16-core 32-thread architecture, is the driving force behind our server's high performance. The CPU's multi-core design and high clock speeds are specifically optimized for blockchain applications, ensuring efficient chain synchronization and reliable endpoint service.

Featuring advanced technologies like PCI Express® 5.0 and DDR5, the CPU provides rapid data transfer, essential for low-latency blockchain transactions. The large 128MB L3 cache further bolsters performance by facilitating quick access to frequently used data, enhancing efficiency.

CPU Cooling System

BKK03

COOLSERVER P32 CPU Cooler

Thermalright aluminium alloy AM5 frame

Cooling efficiency is paramount in maintaining stable performance. Our server utilizes the COOLSERVER P32 AM5 Server CPU Cooler, in conjunction with the Thermalright AM5 frame, to maximize cooling capabilities.

Motherboard: AsRock Rack B650D4U-2L2T/BCM(LGA 1718) Dual 10G LAN

This Micro-ATX motherboard stands as a testament to AsRock's engineering prowess, blending high-performance consumer technology with the robustness of server-grade hardware. The board offers full PCIe 5.0 support and features up to 7 M.2 slots for NVMe storage, enhancing data transfer speeds. Its compatibility with DDR5 ECC UDIMM memory further underlines its suitability for demanding server applications.

Memory: 4x 32GB MICRON DDR5 UDIMM/ECC 4800MHz

Our selection of server-grade DDR5 memory modules provides substantial bandwidth for smooth server operations. Equipped with ECC technology, these modules maintain data integrity, ensuring the reliability of our transactions.

SSD Expansion: NVMe PCIe RAID Adapter 4 Ports NVME SSD to PCI-E 4.0 X16

This expansion card plays a vital role in our data management strategy by enabling the integration of top-tier NVMe SSDs. It contributes to our server's responsiveness by facilitating faster access to stored data.

Storage: 5x 2TB Hanye ME70 NVMe PCI-E4.0 7200mb/s

Our system's storage is equipped with 2TB High-Performance ME70 M.2 NVMe SSDs, providing 12TB of high-speed storage. The SSDs' Gen4 PCIe tech and LDPC error correction ensure quick data access and integrity.

Benchmarks

2023-07-31 13:55:08 Running machine benchmarks...
2023-07-31 13:55:34
+----------+----------------+-------------+-------------+-------------------+
| Category | Function       | Score       | Minimum     | Result            |
+===========================================================================+
| CPU      | BLAKE2-256     | 1.56 GiBs   | 783.27 MiBs | ✅ Pass (203.8 %) |
|----------+----------------+-------------+-------------+-------------------|
| CPU      | SR25519-Verify | 788.10 KiBs | 560.67 KiBs | ✅ Pass (140.6 %) |
|----------+----------------+-------------+-------------+-------------------|
| Memory   | Copy           | 27.73 GiBs  | 11.49 GiBs  | ✅ Pass (241.3 %) |
|----------+----------------+-------------+-------------+-------------------|
| Disk     | Seq Write      | 2.99 GiBs   | 950.00 MiBs | ✅ Pass (322.0 %) |
|----------+----------------+-------------+-------------+-------------------|
| Disk     | Rnd Write      | 1.29 GiBs   | 420.00 MiBs | ✅ Pass (313.4 %) |
+----------+----------------+-------------+-------------+-------------------+
From 5 benchmarks in total, 5 passed and 0 failed (10% fault tolerance).
2023-07-31 13:55:34 The hardware meets the requirements
Read Latency Statistics in nanoseconds:
-------------------------
Minimum: 520 ns
Maximum: 22540 ns
Mean: 914.595734 ns
Standard Deviation: 222.087316 ns
Read IOPS: 953140.861971

Chassis: 1U Case, TGC H1-400

Power Supply Unit: 400W Compuware 80 PLUS Platinum PSU

KVM: Asrock Rack BCM/IPMI

The AsRock Rack motherboard includes a BCM for remote control, offering robust management capabilities.

BKK04 - Bootnode/RPC

BKK04

CPU

Model: AMD Ryzen 9 7950X R9 7950X CPU Processor 16-Core 32-Thread 5NM L3=64M Socket AM5

  • Core Count: 16 cores
  • Technology: 5NM process
  • L3 Cache: 64MB
  • PCI Express: 5.0
  • Memory Support: DDR5

Capabilities: Designed to manage multiple tasks with ease, such as running multiple networks simultaneously, efficient blockchain sync, and low latency transactions.

CPU Cooler

Motherboard

Motherboard as new Model: AsRock Rack B650D4U(LGA 1718)

  • Form Factor: Micro-ATX
  • Memory Support: DDR5 ECC UDIMM
  • PCIe Slots: Full PCIe 5.0 support, M.2 slot, x16 slot, and x4 slot
  • Storage Support: Up to 7 M.2 slots

Memory

Model: 4x Server Memory Module|MICRON|DDR5|32GB|UDIMM/ECC|4800MHz|CL 40|1.1V|MTC20C2085S1EC48BA1R

  • Capacity: 4 modules of 32GB DDR5 each
  • Technology: ECC for increased data integrity
  • Performance: Low-latency

SSD Expansion Cards

Extension card

  • Model: NVMe SSD Expansion Card NVMe PCIe RAID Adapter 4 Ports NVME SSD To PCI-E 4.0 X16 Expansion Card

Storage

  • Primary Storage: 6x 2TB Samsung SSD Pro 980
  • Backup Storage: 3x 16TB disks in ZFS RAIDZ (32TB total)

Benchmarks

``+----------+----------------+-------------+-------------+-------------------+
| Category | Function       | Score       | Minimum     | Result            |
+===========================================================================+
| CPU      | BLAKE2-256     | 1.65 GiBs   | 783.27 MiBs | ✅ Pass (215.8 %) |
|----------+----------------+-------------+-------------+-------------------|
| CPU      | SR25519-Verify | 832.82 KiBs | 560.67 KiBs | ✅ Pass (148.5 %) |
|----------+----------------+-------------+-------------+-------------------|
| Memory   | Copy           | 16.99 GiBs  | 11.49 GiBs  | ✅ Pass (147.9 %) |
|----------+----------------+-------------+-------------+-------------------|
| Disk     | Seq Write      | 2.09 GiBs   | 950.00 MiBs | ✅ Pass (225.3 %) |
|----------+----------------+-------------+-------------+-------------------|
| Disk     | Rnd Write      | 885.35 MiBs | 420.00 MiBs | ✅ Pass (210.8 %) |
+----------+----------------+-------------+-------------+-------------------+
From 5 benchmarks in total, 5 passed and 0 failed (10% fault tolerance).
2023-08-03 00:49:00 The hardware meets the requirements
Read Latency Statistics in nanoseconds:
-------------------------
Minimum: 460 ns
Maximum: 535014 ns
Mean: 968.885148 ns
Standard Deviation: 280.737214 ns
99.99th Percentile Read Latency: 350 ns
-------------------------
Read IOPS: 906996.500117

The read latency meets the 2000 ns and lower QoS requirement

Chassis

  • Model: TGC-24550 2U
  • Design: 2U rackmount, efficient airflow design

Power Supply Unit

  • Model: T.F.SKYWINDINTL 1U MINI Flex ATX Power Supply Unit 400W Modular PSU
  • Capacity: 400W
  • Features: Built-in cooling fan, overcurrent, overvoltage, and short-circuit protection

KVM

  • Model: Asrock Rack BCM/IPMI for remote control

Summary

The BKK04 Bootnode leverages a combination of cutting-edge components to deliver high performance, reliability, and scalability. From the AMD Ryzen 9 7950X processor with 32 threads high core clock cycles to the efficient memory and robust storage solutions, every part of this server is designed to handle demanding server applications, particularly those related to blockchain processing. The use of advanced cooling and power supply units ensures long-term sustainability and stable operation. All components have been chosen as well to be most energy efficient solutions that market can currently provide.

BKK05: Pioneering RISC-V Debian Webhosting

Introduction

Welcome to the frontier of web hosting with our BKK05 server, a trailblazing platform powered by the RISC-V Debian. This server represents not just a shift in technology but an experimental leap into the future of open-source computing.

BKK05

Technical Specifications

ComponentSpecifications
ProcessorStarFive JH7100 64bit SoC with RV64GC, up to 1.5GHz
MemoryLPDDR4, Configurable up to 8GB
Storage2TB Samsung 980 NVMe
NetworkingDual RJ45 Gigabit Ethernet
ExpansionM.2 M-Key for NVMe SSDs
USB Ports2x USB 2.0 + 2x USB 3.0
Video OutHDMI 2.0, supporting 4K resolution

Performance

The BKK05 server is equipped with a VisionFive 2 SBC at its core, featuring a StarFive JH7110 SoC. With 8GB of LPDDR4 RAM and a 2TB Samsung 980 NVMe drive, it's designed to handle web hosting and experimental server tasks with ease. Its RISC-V architecture ensures an open and versatile computing experience.

RISC-V Debian: The New Era

RISC-V brings a breath of fresh air to the server landscape, offering an open ISA (Instruction Set Architecture) that fosters innovation. Debian's adoption of RISC-V for our BKK05 server underpins our commitment to pioneering technology and community-driven development.

Web Hosting Capabilities

BKK05 runs Debian 12 (Bookworm), optimized for the RISC-V architecture. The server's configuration, which includes a robust 2TB NVMe drive, is particularly suited for web hosting, offering rapid data retrieval and ample storage for web applications.

Experimental Projects

The open nature of RISC-V and Debian makes BKK05 the perfect candidate for experimental projects. Its platform is ideal for developers looking to explore the capabilities of RISC-V architecture and contribute to the growth of the ecosystem.

Conclusion

The BKK05 server is a testament to our commitment to embracing open and innovative technologies. By leveraging the power of RISC-V Debian, we provide a stable and forward-thinking web hosting service while also contributing to an exciting new chapter in computing.

BKK06 - Bootnode/RPC

BKK04

BKK06 - High-Performance Bootnode/RPC Server

The BKK06 server stands at the vanguard of our infrastructure, specifically tailored to function as a bootnode and RPC server. It's built around the AMD EPYC™ 9654 CPU and designed to deliver unmatched performance for blockchain and high-computational tasks.

CPU

Model: AMD EPYC™ 9654

  • Core Count: 96 cores
  • Threads: 192
  • Max. Boost Clock: Up to 3.7GHz
  • Base Clock: 2.4GHz
  • L3 Cache: 384MB
  • TDP: 360W (Configurable TDP 320-400W)

Cooler

Model: COOLSERVER AMD SP5 S21 Server CPU Cooler 350W 6 Copper Tubes

Capabilities: Tailored to handle high-concurrency workloads, the EPYC™ 9654 is perfect for bootnode operations and RPC handling, offering rapid data processing and low-latency networking.

Motherboard

Model: GIGABYTE MZ33-AR0 (rev. 1.0)

  • Chipset: System on Chip
  • Form Factor: E-ATX
  • Memory Slots: 24 x DIMM slots supporting DDR5

Capabilities: With 12 memory channels and support for up to 24 DDR5 ECC memory modules, the motherboard is currently populated with 6 x SuperMicro 64GB ECC Registered DDR5 memory modules in a 6-channel configuration, primed for an upgrade to a full 12-channel setup to enhance data throughput and server responsiveness.

Memory

Model: SuperMicro 64GB ECC Registered DDR5 4800

  • Capacity: Currently 6 modules (to be expanded to 12)
  • Technology: ECC Registered for increased reliability
  • Speed: 4800MHz (running at 57600MHz for full 12-channel bandwidth)

Note: Under the SuperMicro brand, actual chip running is HMCG94MEBRA109N AA SKhynix DDR5 64GB SKhynix-Montage 2Rx4 1.1v 4800MHz ECC Registered 288-pin.

Storage

Primary Storage: 5x SAMSUNG 990 PRO M.2 2280 4TB NVMe

  • Sequential Read/Write Speeds: Up to 7,450/6,900 MB/s
  • Random Read/Write Speeds (IOPS): Up to 1,600K/1,550K for 4TB
  • Interface: PCI-Express Gen 4.0 x4
  • Technology: NVMe 2.0 V-NAND
  • Form Factor: M.2 2280

Capabilities: The Samsung 990 PRO drives are renowned for their swift read/write speeds and robust endurance, making them ideal for the intensive data demands of a bootnode and RPC server. +400K R/W IOPS per Terabyte is something ANY cloud provider ain't capable provide for whatever price you were willing to pay.

Connectivity

  • LAN: Dual 10Gb/s BASE-T LAN ports (Broadcom® BCM57416)
  • Management Port: 1 x Dedicated management port

Board Management Controller (BMC)

  • BMC Model: Aspeed® AST2600
  • Capabilities: Integrated BMC with Aspeed® AST2600 GPU offers comprehensive remote management capabilities, including KVM over IP, enabling administrators to manage the server efficiently and securely.

Chassis and Power Supply Unit (PSU)

  • Chassis: Ultra Short 2U rackmount Server Chassis S24306 with six 2.5 ssd bays support eatx dual processor board
  • PSU: Greatwall Dual PSU 2U 1+1 CRPS redundant 800W

Energy Consumption and Carbon Offset

Energy Consumption

We meticulously engineer our server infrastructure, selecting the most energy-efficient devices the market can provide for the amount of computation required. Our approach is proven by the actual consumption rate, which is lower than the manufacturer's estimates.

  • Processor Selection:

    • 2x AMD Ryzen 5600G: 65W each
    • 1x AMD Ryzen 5950X: 170W
    • 1x AMD Ryzen 5950X3D: 120W
    • 1x AMD EPYC 9654: 360W
    • MikroTik CCR2004-16G-2S+: Max 35W
  • Monthly Energy Consumption Estimate:

    • Total Power: 2 * 65W (5600G) + 170W (5950X) + 120W (5950X3D) + 35W (router) + 360W (EPYC9654) = 815W
    • Monthly: 0.815 kW * 24 hours/day * 30 days/month = 586.8 kWh
    • CO2e Emissions (Thailand's 2021 average): 330.62 kg or 0.33 metric tons (mt)

Our selection of processors and devices, including the MikroTik CCR2004-16G-2S+, ensures an optimal performance-to-power ratio. This innovative approach to energy consumption highlights our dedication to sustainability and our commitment to leading the way in energy-efficient computing.

Carbon Offset

To mitigate our environmental impact, we're offsetting our carbon emissions through a monthly subscription with TerraPass, purchasing Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) for clean energy projects. These offsets, including Landfill Gas Capture and Wind Farms, are under reputable standards like the Climate Action Reserve (CAR).

Moving Forward

We're committed to transparent and accountable climate action, continuously striving to reduce our environmental impact and informing stakeholders of our efforts. Our goal transcends merely offsetting emissions; we're building a resilient, sustainable organization contributing positively to our planet.

Carbon Offset Plan

TerraPass certificate for month of August

Achieving sustainability requires active offsetting. We've partnered with TerraPass, choosing their 1 MWh/month RECs subscription for £12.00 per MWh, exceeding our estimated emissions of 0.33 mt of CO2e. This 'over-offsetting' strategy supports renewable energy projects, reflecting our dedication to environmental change.

In conclusion, our approach to energy consumption and carbon offsetting aligns with our commitment to environmental responsibility and innovation. By actively engaging in sustainable practices, we contribute not only to offsetting our carbon emissions but to the broader goal of a cleaner, greener future.

TerraPass Vouchers

2023: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
2024:

Software Infrastructure

Our infrastructure leverages several powerful technologies and platforms to provide a robust and efficient environment for our operations.

Debian

Our servers run on Debian, a highly stable and reliable Linux-based operating system. Debian provides a strong foundation for our operations, with its wide array of packages, excellent package management system, and strong community support. Its stability and robustness make it an excellent choice for our server environments.

Proxmox Virtual Environment

We utilize Proxmox, an open-source server virtualization management solution. Proxmox allows us to manage virtual machines, containers, storage, virtualized networks, and HA clustering from a single, integrated platform. This is crucial in ensuring we have maximum control and efficiency in managing our various server processes. We utilize linux 6.1 lts pve kernel.

LXC (Linux Containers)

We leverage LXC (Linux Containers) to run multiple isolated Linux systems (containers) on a single host. This containerization technology provides us with lightweight, secure, and performant alternatives to full machine virtualization.

ZFS

ZFS, the Zettabyte File System, is an advanced filesystem and logical volume manager. It was designed to overcome many of the major issues found in previous designs and is used for storing data in our Proxmox environment. It provides robust data protection, supporting high storage capacities and efficient data compression, and allows us to create snapshots and clones of our filesystem.

Ansible

We use Ansible for automation of our system configuration and management tasks. Ansible enables us to define and deploy consistent configurations across multiple servers, and automate routine maintenance tasks, thus increasing efficiency and reducing the risk of errors.

MikroTik RouterOS

Our network infrastructure relies on MikroTik RouterOS, a robust network operating system. This system offers a variety of features such as routing, firewall, bandwidth management, wireless access point, backhaul link, hotspot gateway, VPN server, and more. This helps us ensure secure, efficient, and reliable network operations.

All these technologies are intertwined, working together to support our operations. They are chosen not just for their individual capabilities, but also for their compatibility and interoperability, creating an integrated, efficient, and reliable software infrastructure.

Firmware Updates

Samsung 980Pro NVMe

wget https://semiconductor.samsung.com/resources/software-resources/Samsung_SSD_980_PRO_5B2QGXA7.iso
apt-get -y install gzip unzip wget cpio
mkdir /mnt/iso
sudo mount -o loop ./Samsung_SSD_980_PRO_5B2QGXA7.iso /mnt/iso/
mkdir /tmp/fwupdate
cd /tmp/fwupdate
gzip -dc /mnt/iso/initrd | cpio -idv --no-absolute-filenames
cd root/fumagician/
sudo ./fumagician

This .iso is for 980 Pro, if you have different model replace ISO with link on https://semiconductor.samsung.com/consumer-storage/support/tools/

ASRock Rack Motherboard

This guide outlines the steps to update the firmware on your ASRock Rack motherboard. The update includes the BIOS, BMC (Baseboard Management Controller), and the networking firmware.

Before starting, download the following files:

BIOS Update

ASRock Rack provides a BIOS flash utility called ASRock Rack Instant Flash, embedded in the Flash ROM, to make the BIOS update process simple and straightforward.

  1. Preparation: Format a USB flash drive with FAT32/16/12 file system and save the new BIOS file to your USB flash drive.

  2. Access ASRock Rack Instant Flash: Restart the server and press the <F6> key during the POST or the <F2> key to enter the BIOS setup menu. From there, access the ASRock Rack Instant Flash utility.

  3. Update BIOS: Follow the instructions provided by the utility to update the BIOS.

BMC Firmware Update

In order to keep your BMC firmware up-to-date and have the latest features and improvements, regular updates are recommended. This guide provides step-by-step instructions on how to update your BMC firmware.

  1. Preparation: Download the correct BMC firmware update file from the ASRock Rack website. Ensure the firmware version is later than the one currently installed on your device. Save the firmware file on your local system.

  2. Access BMC Maintenance Portal: Open your web browser and navigate to the BMC maintenance portal using the IP address of the BMC. Typically, the URL is https://[BMC IP Address]/#maintenance/firmware_update_wizard, for instance, https://192.168.33.114/#maintenance/firmware_update_wizard.

  3. Login: Use your BMC username and password to log into the portal.

  4. Firmware Update Section: Navigate to the firmware update section.

  5. Upload Firmware Image: Click on "Select Firmware Image" and upload the firmware file you downloaded earlier. The firmware files typically end with .ima. For instance, B650D4U_2L2T_4.01.00.ima.

  6. Preserve Configuration: If you want to preserve all the current configurations during the update, check the box "Preserve all Configuration". This will maintain all the settings irrespective of the individual items marked as preserve/overwrite in the table below.

  7. Start Update: Click "Firmware Update". The system will validate the image and if successful, the update process will start. The progress will be shown on the screen.

  8. Reboot: Once the update is completed, the system will reboot automatically.

WARNING: Please note that after entering the update mode, other web pages, widgets, and services will not work. All the open widgets will be automatically closed. If the update is cancelled in the middle of the process, the device will be reset only for BMC BOOT, and APP components of Firmware.

NOTE: The IP address used in this guide is an example. Replace it with the actual IP address of your BMC. Also, remember to use a reliable network connection during the update process to prevent any interruption.

Networking Firmware Update

  1. Preparation: Format a USB flash drive and copy the "bnxtmt-lite-uefi-221.0.117.0-x64" folder from the downloaded Broadcom 57416 LAN Flashing Firmware onto it.

  2. Access UEFI Shell: Insert the USB flash drive into your ASRock Rack server board, reboot the server, and hit F11 at the POST screen. Select "UEFI: Built-in EFI Shell". The USB flash drive should be named FS0:. Type FS0: and press enter.

    UEFI Shell

  3. Verify Current Firmware Version: Execute bnxtmt.efi to display the current firmware version.

    bnxtmt efi execution

  4. Erase the Flash: Navigate to the "bnxtmt-lite-uefi-221.0.117.0-x64" folder and execute bnxtmt.efi -sysop -none -no_swap –blank to erase the current firmware.

    Erase Flash

  5. Flash the Firmware: Execute bnxtmt.efi -sysop -none -no_swap -fnvm ASRR57416-2T.PKG -log FW1.log to flash the new firmware. Here, ASRR57416-2T.PKG is the firmware file.

    Flash Firmware

  6. Verify Updated Firmware Version: Run bnxtmt.efi again to verify the new firmware version.

    bnxtmt efi execution

  7. Flash LAN Ports' MAC Addresses: Execute bnxtmt.efi -none –m -log MAC1.log.

    Flash MAC

  8. Input MAC Addresses: Enter the MAC addresses of both LAN ports when prompted. Write down these addresses beforehand.

    Enter MAC Addresses

  9. Power Cycle: Turn off the system, power cycle the PSU, and then power everything back on.

Note: The MAC addresses for your LAN ports are crucial. Write them down before starting the update process as they need to be added during the command at step 8.

Networking

Bandwidth

Scaling bandwidth

We operate a dedicated bandwidth connection providing up to 200Mbps for international direct land-line and under-sea connections. This service extends all the way to Singapore, ensuring latency below 30ms. This speed is critical for RPC endpoint provider operations, where timely data transfer is a crucial success factor. The provision to scale up our bandwidth capabilities offers us the flexibility to match our growing needs without compromising on the quality of service.

Router

Mikrotik Cloud Core Router

MikroTik Cloud Core Router CCR2004-16G-2S+

We use the MikroTik Cloud Core Router CCR2004-16G-2S+ for its optimal low latency networking and high throughput capabilities.

  • Performance: The CCR2004 router uses the Annapurna Labs Alpine v2 CPU, which has 4x 64-bit ARMv8-A Cortex-A57 cores for robust single-core performance.
  • Bandwidth: The router has 18 wired ports, including 16x Gigabit Ethernet ports and two 10G SFP+ cages for high data traffic management.
  • No Bottlenecks: Each group of 8 Gigabit Ethernet ports is connected to a distinct Marvell Amethyst family switch-chip, each having a separate 10 Gbps full-duplex line to the CPU for full wire speed operation.
  • Single-Core Performance per Watt: The CCR2004 router offers the best single-core performance per watt across all CCR devices.
  • Reliability and Durability: The CCR2004 router, encased in a classic white 1U rackmount, incorporates built-in dual redundant power supplies for uninterrupted service.
Mikrotik Cloud Core Router

IPv4 Configuration

Our subnet, based on the CIDR notation of 255.255.255.248 (/29), provides us with 6 usable IP addresses, from 27.131.160.105 to 27.131.160.110, out of a total of 8. The first address, 27.131.160.104, is the network address, and the last one, 27.131.160.111, is the broadcast address. They can't be used for hosts (like our router or nodes).

We currently use the following configuration:

  • Network Address: 27.131.160.104
  • Gateway (ISP's router): 27.131.160.105
  • Our Router's WAN Interface: 27.131.160.106
  • Usable addresses for nodes: 27.131.160.107 to 27.131.160.110
  • Broadcast Address: 27.131.160.111

Rack from the back with electricity sockets

Proxmox Network Configuration Guide

Overview

Networking in Proxmox is managed through the Debian network interface configuration file at /etc/network/interfaces. This guide will walk you through the process of configuring the network interfaces and creating a Linux bridge for your Proxmox server.

Pre-requisites:

Before we begin, you should have:

  1. A Proxmox VE installed and configured on your server.
  2. Administrative or root access to your Proxmox VE server.

Step 1: Understand Proxmox Network Configuration Files

Proxmox network settings are mainly configured in two files:

  • /etc/network/interfaces: This file describes the network interfaces available on your system and how to activate them. This file is critical for setting up bridged networking or configuring network interfaces manually.
  • /etc/hosts: This file contains IP address to hostname mappings.

Step 2: Configure Primary Network Interface

First, open the network interfaces configuration file for editing: Set your primary network interface (e.g., enp9s0) to manual:

nano /etc/network/interfaces
auto enp9s0
iface enp9s0 inet manual

Step 3: Configure Linux Bridge

Next, create a Linux bridge (vmbr0):

auto vmbr0
iface vmbr0 inet static
    address 192.168.69.103
    netmask 255.255.255.0
    gateway 192.168.69.1
    bridge_ports enp9s0
    bridge_stp off
    bridge_fd 0

Make sure to replace the address, netmask, and gateway parameters with the correct values for your network.

Step 4: Apply Configuration

Save and exit the file, then restart the network service for the changes to take effect:

systemctl restart networking.service

Step 5: Verify Configuration

Use the ip a command to verify that the bridge was created successfully:

ip a

Step 6: Configure the Hosts File

The /etc/hosts file maps network addresses to hostnames. Open this file in a text editor:

nano /etc/hosts

Then, define the IP address and corresponding FQDN and hostname for your Proxmox server:

127.0.0.1	localhost
192.168.69.103	bkk03.yourdomain.com	bkk03

# The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts
::1     localhost ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
ff02::1 ip6-allnodes
ff02::2 ip6-allrouters

Remember to replace 192.168.69.103, bkk03.yourdomain.com, and bkk03 with your server's IP address, FQDN, and hostname, respectively.

After updating the /etc/hosts file, save and exit the editor.

Important: Ensure the FQDN in your /etc/hosts matches the actual FQDN of your server. This FQDN should be resolvable from the server itself and any machines that will be accessing it. The Proxmox web interface uses this hostname to generate SSL certificates for the HTTPS interface, so incorrect resolution may lead to certificate issues.

By carefully following the instructions provided in this guide, administrators can ensure a robust and secure networking setup for their Proxmox servers. This guide should provide a good starting point for both new and experienced Proxmox administrators to understand and manage the network settings of their servers effectively.

Troubleshooting

If you run into issues during this process, you can use the following commands to troubleshoot:

  • systemctl status networking.service: Displays the status of the networking service.

  • journalctl -xeu networking.service: Provides detailed logs for the networking service.

  • ip addr flush dev <interface> and ip route flush dev <interface>: Clears IP addresses and routes on a given interface.

  • ip link delete <bridge> and ip link add name <bridge> type bridge: Deletes and recreates a bridge.

  • ip link set <interface> master <bridge>: Assigns an interface to a bridge.

  • ip addr add <ip>/<subnet> dev <bridge>: Assigns an IP address to a bridge.

Remember to replace <interface>, <bridge>, <ip>, and <subnet> with the appropriate values for your network.

For more detailed information about Proxmox networking, refer to the official Proxmox documentation.

RouterOS

RouterOS is an operating system designed specifically for routers and network devices. Developed by the Latvian company MikroTik, it is used to turn standard x86-64 architecture computers or MikroTik's own RouterBOARD hardware into fully functional routers.

RouterOS provides all the core features expected in a router, such as routing, firewalling, bandwidth management, VPN support, and more. Here's a brief overview of some key features and aspects:

  1. Routing: Supports various routing protocols such as BGP, OSPF, RIP, and MPLS, allowing for robust and scalable network design.

  2. Firewall: RouterOS includes a powerful firewall to secure the network. It allows for filtering by IP address, port, protocol, and other parameters.

  3. Quality of Service (QoS): Bandwidth management is a strong feature in RouterOS, enabling administrators to prioritize certain types of traffic, limit bandwidth for specific users, or guarantee certain bandwidth levels for specific services.

  4. Virtual Private Network (VPN) Support: RouterOS supports various VPN protocols, including OpenVPN, L2TP, PPTP, and SSTP, allowing secure connections to remote networks.

  5. Wireless Capabilities: It provides support for various wireless standards, making it suitable for creating Wi-Fi hotspots or linking locations wirelessly.

  6. User Management: RouterOS offers multiple user levels and authentication methods, such as local database, RADIUS, and more.

  7. Hotspot Gateway: It allows the setup of a custom user login page, authentication of users, and bandwidth limitation, particularly useful in public Wi-Fi scenarios like hotels, airports, etc.

  8. Winbox: RouterOS can be managed through Winbox, a GUI application provided by MikroTik, as well as through command line and web interfaces. Winbox enables an easy-to-use interface for configuring and monitoring the router.

  9. Scalability: Suitable for small home setups and also for large enterprise networks. It provides robust features that can be tailored to fit various network sizes and requirements.

  10. Licensing: RouterOS licensing is tiered, with higher-level licenses unlocking additional features. This allows users to choose the level that fits their specific needs and budget.

  11. Scripting: RouterOS includes a scripting language that lets administrators automate various functions and operations. Also SSL secured API available.

  12. Updates and Security: Regular updates are provided by MikroTik, including security patches and feature enhancements.

RouterOS makes a compelling choice for network professionals who need an affordable and highly configurable operating system for their routers. It can transform simple hardware into powerful network devices with an extensive range of features. Whether deployed in small businesses, large enterprises, or ISPs, RouterOS is a versatile solution to many networking needs.

FastTracking

Efficient Routing and Firewall Management with MikroTik Routers

Efficiency in routing and firewall management is paramount in a network environment, especially when tasked with handling substantial traffic volumes. This document elucidates best practices for configuring MikroTik routers to realize optimal performance, concentrating on FastTrack technology and judicious firewall rule arrangement.

FastTrack Configuration

MikroTik routers offer FastTrack, a performance optimization feature that enables specific packets to bypass various handling layers. The benefit of this bypass is twofold: reduced CPU load and increased throughput.

The Advantage of FastTrack

FastTrack substantially lightens the burden on the router's CPU, thereby accommodating more connections and amplifying throughput. This efficiency is particularly invaluable for Peer-to-Peer (P2P) connections, such as those utilized by Polkadot nodes.

Implementing FastTrack

FastTrack can be implemented with precision to enhance the performance of Polkadot P2P ports.

  1. Identify the Connections: Ascertain the connections you desire to FastTrack. Typically, for Polkadot nodes, the FastTrack would be applied to the P2P ports (e.g., 30333) responsible for inter-node communication.

  2. Construct the FastTrack Rule: Position the FastTrack rule at the zenith of the firewall filter rules. The following example demonstrates a FastTrack rule for Polkadot P2P port 30333, targeting the IP address 192.168.42.101:

    /ip firewall filter add chain=forward action=fasttrack-connection dst-address=192.168.42.101 protocol=tcp dst-port=30333 connection-state=established,related
    
  3. Formulate a Corresponding Accept Rule: FastTracking a connection does not automatically validate it, necessitating a corresponding 'accept' rule subsequent to the FastTrack rule:

    /ip firewall filter add chain=forward action=accept dst-address=192.168.42.101 protocol=tcp dst-port=30333 connection-state=established,related
    
  4. Configure Port Forwarding: Accurate port forwarding is fundamental for channeling traffic to the Polkadot node. An example of a Destination NAT rule for directing traffic on port 30333 to the internal address 192.168.42.101 is as follows:

    /ip firewall nat add chain=dstnat action=dst-nat to-addresses=192.168.42.101 to-ports=30333 protocol=tcp dst-address=27.131.160.106 dst-port=30333
    

Ordering Firewall Rules

The sequencing of firewall rules is pivotal, as rules are processed linearly. The advised general order is:

  1. Essential Drop Rules: Intercept known malicious IPs or undesired traffic.
  2. FastTrack Rules: As detailed above.
  3. General Allow and Deny Rules: These encompass standard protocols and services either to be permitted or obstructed.

Monitoring and Refinement

MikroTik offers diverse tools to observe your router's performance:

  • Resource Monitoring: Utilize /system resource print to inspect CPU and memory usage.
  • Connection Tracking: Examine FastTrack connections with /ip firewall connection tracking print.

Consistent monitoring is instrumental in detecting performance restrictions and avenues for further enhancement.

Filesystem

Blockchain nodes, such as validators and archive nodes, require a highly reliable and efficient filesystem to operate effectively. The choice of filesystem can significantly affect the performance and reliability of these nodes. In light of performance concerns with ZFS, especially in ParityDB workloads as discussed in paritytech/polkadot-sdk/pull/1792, this guide provides a detailed approach to configuring a robust filesystem in Proxmox.

Filesystem Choices and Their Impact

The extensive use of I/O operations by blockchain nodes means the filesystem must manage write and read operations efficiently. CoW filesystems, while feature-rich and robust, introduce overhead that can degrade performance, as evidenced by the cited benchmarks.

Why Not ZFS or Btrfs for Blockchain Nodes?

  • ZFS: While ZFS is revered for its data integrity, the added overhead from features like snapshotting, checksums, and the dynamic block size can significantly slow down write operations crucial for blockchain databases.
  • Btrfs: Similar to ZFS, Btrfs offers advanced features such as snapshotting and volume management. However, its CoW nature means it can suffer from fragmentation and performance degradation over time, which is less than ideal for write-intensive blockchain operations.

Given these insights, a move towards a more traditional, performant, and linear filesystem is recommended.

For high I/O workloads such as those handled by blockchain validators and archive nodes, LVM-thin provisioned with ext4 stands out:

  • ext4: Offers a stable and linear write performance, which is critical for the high transaction throughput of blockchain applications.
  • LVM-thin: Allows for flexible disk space allocation, providing the benefits of thin provisioning such as snapshotting and easier resizing without the CoW overhead.

Strategic Partitioning for Maximum Reliability and Performance

A well-thought-out partitioning scheme is crucial for maintaining data integrity and ensuring high availability.

RAID 1 Configuration for the Root Partition

Using a RAID 1 setup for the root partition provides mirroring of data across two disks, thus ensuring that the system can continue to operate even if one disk fails.

Implementing RAID 1:

  1. Disk Preparation:

    • Select two identical disks (e.g., /dev/sda and /dev/sdb).
    • Partition both disks with an identical layout, reserving space for the root partition.
  2. RAID Array Creation:

    • Execute the command to create the RAID 1 array:
      mdadm --create --verbose /dev/md0 --level=1 --raid-devices=2 /dev/sda1 /dev/sdb1
      
    • Format the RAID array with a resilient filesystem like ext4:
      mkfs.ext4 /dev/md0
      
    • Mount the RAID array at the root mount point during the Proxmox installation or manually afterward.

Boot Partition Configuration

Having two separate boot partitions provides redundancy, ensuring the system remains bootable in the event of a primary boot partition failure.

Configuring Boot Partitions:

  • Primary Boot Partition:

    • On the first disk, create a boot partition (e.g., /dev/sda2).
    • Install the bootloader and kernel images here.
  • Fallback Boot Partition:

    • Mirror the primary boot partition to a second disk (e.g., /dev/sdb2).
    • Configure the bootloader to fall back to this partition if the primary boot fails.

LVM-Thin Provisioning on Data Disks

LVM-thin provisioning is recommended for managing data disks. It allows for efficient disk space utilization by provisioning "thin" volumes that can be expanded dynamically as needed.

Steps for LVM-Thin Provisioning:

  1. Initialize LVM Physical Volumes:

    • Use the pvcreate command on the designated data disks:
      pvcreate /dev/nvme1n1 /dev/nvme2n1 /dev/nvme3n1
      
  2. Create a Volume Group:

    • Group the initialized disks into a volume group:
      vgcreate vg_data /dev/nvme1n1 /dev/nvme2n1 /dev/nvme3n1
      
  3. Establish a Thin Pool:

    • Create a thin pool within the volume group to hold the thin volumes:
      lvcreate --size 100G --thinpool data_tpool vg_data
      
  4. Provision Thin Volumes:

    • Create thin volumes from the pool as needed for containers or virtual machines: ```bash lvcreate --virtualsize 500G --thin data_tpool --name data_volume
      
      
  5. Format and Mount Thin Volumes:

    • Format the volumes with a filesystem, such as ext4, and mount them:
      mkfs.ext4 /dev/vg_data/data_volume
      mount /dev/vg_data/data_volume /mnt/data_volume
      

Integrating LVM-Thin Volumes with Proxmox

Proxmox's pct command-line tool can manage container storage by mapping LVM-thin volumes to container mount points.

Unlabored

Effortless Proxmox Infrastructure is deployed using comprehensive collection of rolebooks use to deploy complete infrastructure as a code can be found now in Github.

Team

Tommi is a symbol of the generation that mastered the qwerty keyboard even before grasping the intricacies of handwriting. With over 20 years of experience in building hardware, software, and managing servers during the early stages of the internet, he demonstrates an exceptional commitment to the digital world.

Tommi's journey with Bitcoin started as early as 2008. He ran the first version of Bitcoin on a Pentium D950 computer, only to lose the digital keys within a few months. This experience gave him a first-hand insight into the workings of the novel digital currency.

However, it wasn't until 2013, when Snowden's revelations and the growing influence of anonymous online marketplaces came to light, that Tommi fully grasped the importance of Bitcoin's proposition. The internet, once thought of as a user-driven landscape, had allowed a mere ten companies to gain majority control, leading to concerns about mass surveillance.

This eye-opening realization led to the creation of Rotko Network. This initiative is based on the principle of creating an internet that is shaped by its users, rather than dominated by a few profit-driven corporations. With the dedication of a software enthusiast and the heart of a freedom-fighter, standing at the helm of this mission. He is dedicated to end the data slavery and reshaping the internet into a space that truly belongs to its users. wq!

Dan

Dan

Meet Dan, a bona fide wizard of programming who cut his teeth coding back in the 90s, drawing inspiration from the music demoscene. With more than two decades under his belt, he's a seasoned veteran who understands the ins and outs of the game.

Just like many of us old-timers, he has a deep appreciation for functional programming and a penchant for clarity in code, with Rust being his go-to tool. He's got this knack for building software that runs as close to the metal as possible, extracting every bit of performance he can get.

One of his remarkable feats is constructing intricate drum machines entirely from scratch, a testament to his understanding of complex systems and algorithmic creativity. He’s not just a coder; he’s a craftsman.

With over 40 years of diverse and significant technical experience, Mikko is the ideal advisor for creating Internet and networking infrastructure at Rotko Networks. His expertise spans across all technical layers, from layer 1 hardware programming to layer 7 application interfaces, making him an essential asset, especially considering the CEO's top-to-bottom learning path.

His technical journey began in the mid-1980s at Nokia Mobile Phones, where he hand-wrote UI with NEC's Assembly without a compiler, demonstrating a profound understanding of low-level programming. His most notable achievement at Nokia was the invention of the menu buttons on the display, a pioneering feature that has become ubiquitous in mobile user interfaces.

One of the most noteworthy roles was serving as the IT Manager at the University of Turku, where he was responsible for managing and upgrading the entire IT infrastructure, including modern Data Center and network services. He implemented crucial projects like Datacenter upgrades, WLAN enhancements, network topology redesigns, and developed vital services such as private cloud storage and learning platforms.

His profound knowledge of technologies like Novell NetWare, AD, MS Exchange, backup and storage systems, IIS, ISA Firewall, DNS, and DHCP, coupled with his broad understanding of both low-level and high-level systems, makes him a tremendous asset for Rotko Networks. His broad and deep technical expertise ensures he will provide significant guidance in building a robust and efficient Internet and networking infrastructure.